PROBLEMS WITH NEW DRUGS AGAINST CANCER

PROBLEMS WITH NEW DRUGS AGAINST CANCER

A study revealed that some anti-cancer drugs can cause not only hypertension issues but also the rupture of blood vessels and severe cardiovascular problems.

 

HEALTH ISSUES

Researchers from the National Center for Oncological Research (CNIO) in collaboration with researchers from the National Center for Cardiovascular Research (CNIC), conducted a study published in the journal Nature Medicine, in which they have linked the use of the recently FDA approved inhibitors of Plk1 as “Therapy Innovative in Leukemia ” with the onset of cardiovascular problems.

In particular, the study suggests that the prolonged use of these inhibitors can produce not only hypertension, but also the rupture of blood vessels and severe cardiovascular problems.

 

In recent years inhibitors of cell cycle regulators – the process that controls the proliferation of tumor cells – have shown their usefulness in the fight against various tumors such as breast cancer.

 

WHICH PRODUCTS MAY CAUSE PROBLEMS?

Among the new drugs that use this strategy is Volasertib. An inhibitor of the Plk1 protein that has shown very promising results in the treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

 

«ONE OF THE PROBLEMS THAT WE ENCOUNTER WHEN TESTING NEW DRUGS IN PATIENTS IS THAT WE KNOW VERY LITTLE ABOUT THE REAL FUNCTION OF THE PROTEINS TO WHICH THESE DRUGS ARE AIMED AT» said Marcos Malumbres, study coordinator. His CNIO team wanted to study the actual function of the Plk1 protein in mammals using laboratory mice.

To study the function of Plk1, the researchers generated a mouse variant with decreased levels of that protein.

 

«IT WAS SURPRISING, HALF OF THE MICE DIED OF THORACIC HEMORRHAGE DUE TO THE RUPTURE OF THE ARTERIES» said Guillermo de Cárcer, CNIO researcher and the article’s first author.

«THE MALES DIED THE FIRST NIGHT THAT THEY SPENT IN THE SAME BOX WITH THE FEMALES »he added that «THIS IS ONE OF THE SITUATIONS THAT CAUSES THE HIGHEST RISE OF BLOOD TENSION IN YOUNG MALES»

 

Plk1 had initially been seen as a protein that controls how cells multiply. This caught the attention of pharmaceutical companies that saw in it a new therapeutic target to slow tumor growth. Several inhibitors of this protein are now in clinical trial phase for various types of tumors. 

Volasertib, has recently been recognized as one of the best therapies against Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Like most chemotherapy drugs, Volasertib causes some side effects that are still under study.

A team of researchers that included Juan Miguel Redondo’s team (CNIC), as well as scientists from the Center for Cancer Research (CIC) of the University of Salamanca and the London Research Institute, treated mice with low doses of Volasertib for two months. Mice with low levels of Plk1 or treated with Volasertib had no growth problems. But they suffered from ruptured arteries and secondary heart problems.

Arteries are even more sensitive to the inhibition of Plk1 than other tissues in adult organisms. In fact, the study shows that Plk1 is an essential protein for the contraction of the cells that decorate the arteries’ wall. This is a cell movement that is responsible for maintaining blood pressure at adequate levels.

 

REPERCUSIONS

 

Cardiovascular problems and cancer are major causes of morbidity and mortality in advanced societies. The involvement of Plk1 in the control of both processes will have important repercussions in future biomedical developments.

Malumbres concludes that: “We have to study the biological function of the protein very well and utilize appropriate models before using it. Only then can we design protocols for patients that are both appropriate and with fewer side effects”.

 

Source: abc.es/salud

KNOCKING DOWN ALL MYTHS ABOUT CHOLESTEROL

KNOCKING DOWN ALL MYTHS ABOUT CHOLESTEROL

Knocking down all myths about cholesterol
Knocking down all myths about cholesterol … Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the world.
Its direct relationship with cholesterol has given way to an intense concern about this risk factor. Hence the importance of correctly understanding what cholesterol is, where it comes from, what it is for, etc. And, of course, to knock down certain myths that don’t help in the fight against heart disease.

WHAT IS CHOLESTEROL?
The first thing that needs to be made clear, is that cholesterol is an essential substance for life. It is required by the body to perform various biological functions, from the manufacture of hormones to the synthesis of vitamins. Moreover, it is an essential structural component of every cell membrane of animal origin.

It is an organic molecule, a type of lipid or fat. Most cholesterol present in the body is endogenous. That is, it is produced internally, specifically in the liver. The rest is exogenous, meaning that it comes from external sources, such as food.

To incorporate cholesterol into the biological processes, our bodies must transport these molecules to each cell. That’s what Lipoproteins are for.

WHAT ARE LIPOPROTEINS?
Lipoproteins are complex molecules, composed of proteins and lipids. Their function is to transport fat molecules throughout the body. Since our blood is a watery medium, incompatible with fats, lipoproteins are essential to remove lipids from the bloodstream and stabilize the medium.

Lipoproteins are often confused with cholesterol types, which is not correct. This idea has given rise to one common myth related to the subject, which now must be brought down.


THERE ARE FOUR LIPOPROTEINS
These are responsible for the transport of cholesterol: CMs, VLDL, LDL and HDL. All play a different, but equally important,  role.
CMs
Chylomicrons are the less dense cholesterol transport molecules. Their function is to bring fats from the intestine to the muscle and other tissues that need fatty acids to produce energy or fat deposits.

VLDL (VERY LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN)
The VLDL molecules are produced by the liver. VLDL’s function is to distribute triglycerides (a type of fat) to all the cells of the body. A part of this type of lipoprotein is converted to LDL.

LDL (LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN)
They are the main carriers of cholesterol in the blood. A cell with abundant cholesterol will have blocked its synthesis of LDL receptors, to prevent the new cholesterol in the LDL molecules from being absorbed. In contrast, LDL receptor synthesis proceeds when a cell is deficient in cholesterol. When this process becomes unregulated, LDL molecules without receptors begin to appear in the blood. These non-absorbed LDL molecules are highly oxidative, which then results in their accumulation in blood vessels, causing the known “blocked” veins or arteries.

HDL (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN)
The HDL Lipoprotein has the function of transporting cholesterol back to the liver. From there they can either be excreted or used for other tissues that synthesize hormones, in a process known as reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). A large number of HDL particles correlates with better health outcomes.

THERE IS NO GOOD OR BAD CHOLESTEROL, ONLY AN EXCESS OF IT
The second misconception about cholesterol, deeply rooted in the population, is the idea that there is good cholesterol and bad cholesterol.

This relationship originates from lipoproteins and medical tests designed to diagnose cardiovascular diseases.

The main indicators measured to assess the risk of suffering from this type of disease are the presence of lipoprotein LDL and HDL. The greater the presence of LDL in the body, the greater the risk of cardiovascular disease.

On the other hand, a greater presence of HDL is associated with a favourable scenario. Hence the “good” and “bad” cholesterol. However, both lipoproteins are equally important for the body’s proper functioning.


Neither is bad or good in itself, but they both should be assessed in relation to the right health promoting proportion.


CHOLESTEROL METABOLISM
To better understand this idea it is necessary to dig deeper into the metabolic process of cholesterol.

 

We already said that as a fatty molecule, cholesterol is not soluble in water, so it needs another way to be transported by the blood (a watery medium). This is where liproproteins come into play, as a means of transporting cholesterol.
Lipoprotein particles can be recognized and bound to the cells by specific receptors in the cell membranes, thus being able to “transfer” their cholesterol load to the specific cells and tissues that require these particles.

Dr. Carlos Zavala explains it in detail in an article published by the Las Condes Clinic.

“This pathway starts in the liver where they are first assembled and then very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) are secreted. The hepatic synthesis of these lipoproteins increases with the ingestion of fat and carbohydrates. VLDL transport triglycerides to peripheral tissues (adipose tissue and muscle), and cholesterol to the suprarenal glands and plasma membranes.

LDLs are the main transporters of plasma cholesterol to tissues. However, 75% of the uptake of LDL occurs in the liver, the rest in the suprarenal and adipose tissue. Once inside the cell the particle is disarmed in its protein and lipid components “.

As long as there is a normal amount of cholesterol, it is healthy, necessary and functional as a cellular builder and source of energy. This energy, if used, leaves room for cells to metabolize more cholesterol.

However, when there is an excess of cholesterol the cellular receptors of lipoproteins are not enough, or they are full. Therefore, in simple terms, the cell “rejects” the lipoprotein by forcing it to remain in the blood.

Once the LDL lipoprotein is forced to circulate in the bloodstream, it begins a process of oxidation, sticking to the walls of veins and arteries.

This accumulation ends up causing the dreaded arterial congestion, which causes cardiovascular diseases and high risk of suffering a cardiac infarction.

HOW CAN WE ALWAYS KEEP OUR CHOLESTEROL AT “GOOD” LEVELS?
As we could see, the problem is not cholesterol, but the excess of it. Therefore the task should be to focus on how to keep cholesterol  within healthy boundaries.

The main source of cholesterol rise is an unbalanced diet. According to the Heart Foundation, “Inadequate diets among the population are a determining factor of hypercholesterolemia. There are many people who include many unhealthy fats and alcohol in their diet, in addition to foods that are processed and high in sugars”.

On the other hand, a sedentary lifestyle means that this energy stored in the form of lipids is not spent. This saturates the cells and does not allow for a  correct absorption of that cholesterol that continues to be generated in the body, or keeps entering through the diet.

Therefore, the good news is that most people with cholesterol problems should only make modifications to their eating habits and physical activity.



THE FOUR LIFESTYLE CHANGES THAT ARE REQUIRED
According to the Chilean Society of Cardiology, four changes in lifestyle should be made:

EAT HEART-HEALTHY FOODS
Decrease your intake of mainly trans fats and sugar; and increase the consumption of vegetables, whole grains, nuts and fruits.

Vegetables, virgin vegetable oils and nuts, among others, contain phytosterols. Phytosterols are vegetable “cholesterol”. This molecule is similar but not the same as that coming from the animal kingdom, and its consumption prevents the absorption of approximately 50% of the cholesterol ingested through food.

It is estimated that in a typical diet, approximately 250 mg of phytosterols are consumed daily. Those following a vegetarian diet probably get double that amount. However, the recommendation is for a daily intake of at least 2 g. of phytosterols.

An increase in consumption may be made easier by taking supplements, such as Cardiosmile, and always in the context of a healthy diet.

BE PHYSICALLY ACTIVE
Physical activity favours the production of HDL lipoprotein, which in turn helps the excretion of cholesterol from the body, in addition to regulating blood pressure.


QUIT SMOKING
Smoking also decreases HDL production. Cigarette compounds also increase other risk factors such as hypertension and Diabetes.

LOSE WEIGHT (IF YOU ARE OVERWEIGHT OR OBESE)
People who are overweight and obese tend to have increased LDL levels and decreased HDL levels.

Cardiovascular disease, and with it cholesterol problems as a risk factor, must be addressed correctly. Putting the focus on education and changing habits is essential to avoid the millions of deaths that this pathology causes each year.

WHAT ARE PHYTOSTEROLS? WHY SHOULD THEY BE IN YOUR DIET?

WHAT ARE PHYTOSTEROLS? WHY SHOULD THEY BE IN YOUR DIET?

Have you ever heard about Phytosterols? Most likely not. However, it is a word that we are sure you will want to be more aware of in your life.

This organic molecule is one of the little-known gifts of nature that has been proven to be fundamental for the maintenance of health. Here we tell you why.

WHAT ARE PHYTOSTEROLS? 

Phytosterols are natural compounds of vegetable origin present in some foods. They are molecules structurally similar to animal cholesterol.

They are the cholesterol of vegetables, because, like animal cholesterol, they fulfill a structural function in the cells of the food that contains them.

Currently, approximately 44 plant sterols have been described. The most abundant sterols in food are:

– Phytosterols

-Sitosterol

-Campesterol

– Stigmasterol and others.

These sterols can’t be produced by the human body, so they can only be obtained through the intake of certain foods.

WHERE DO WE FIND PHYTOSTEROLS?

Phytosterols are found only in the plant world. They are present in almost all stems, fruits and vegetable leaves.

There is a high concentration of them in  vegetable oils, such as corn, soybeans and sunflower oils,though these must be virgin, cold pressed and not hydrogenated.

Additionally, phytosterols may be found in whole grain cereals, legumes, dried fruits (mainly nuts) and seeds such as sesame. They are also present in fruits and vegetables, although in lower concentrations.

WHAT ARE THEY GOOD FOR AND WHAT IS THEIR ACTION IN YOUR BODY?

Several beneficial properties for human health have been attributed to phytosterols, such as:

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antitumor
  • Bactericide and fungicide

However, the effect with the greatest scientific support is hypocholesterolemic. That is, the reduction of cholesterol in the body, both of total and LDL cholesterol.

So, the main health benefit of the consumption of phytosterols is that these compounds block the absorption of cholesterol at intestinal level.

THE HYPOCHOLESTEROLEMIC EFFECT OF PHYTOSTEROLS IS ATTRIBUTED TO THREE METABOLIC ACTIONS:

THEY INHIBIT THE INTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF CHOLESTEROL

For the absorption of lipophilic nutrients (fats and fat-related) by our bodies, these must be transported by the so-called mixed micelles. These come into contact with the intestinal cells (enterocytes) and allow the entry of nutrients into the body.

Because phytosterols are more lipophilic than cholesterol itself, they take the place of cholesterol in mixed micelles … The non-emulsified cholesterol (displaced from the micelle) can’t be absorbed and is eliminated with the stools.

THEY  DECREASE THE ESTERIFICATION OF CHOLESTEROL IN ENTEROCYTES 

By inhibiting the activity of the enzyme acylCoA-cholesterol acyl transferase, thus inhibiting the entry into the bloodstream of the cholesterol that did reach the intestinal cells.

THEY STIMULATE THE FLOW OF CHOLESTEROL

From the enterocytes to the intestinal lumen by increasing the activity and expression of an ABC-type molecular transporter. These transporters are called ABCG5 and ABCG8.

Under normal conditions, the body absorbs 45% of all cholesterol ingested through food (exogenous). While in the presence of phytosterols, this absorption decreases to 25%. So the consumption of an optimal amount of phytosterols reduces the absorption of exogenous cholesterol by approximately 50%.

HOW CAN WE INCREASE THE INTAKE OF PHYTOSTEROLS?

As previously stated, phytosterols are found only in the plant world. Therefore, to increase the intake of phytosterols it’s important to prioritize a diet based on legumes, plants, nuts and whole grains.

It is estimated that in a typical diet, approximately 250 mg of phytosterols are consumed daily. Those following a vegetarian diet probably get double that amount. However, the recommendation is for a daily intake of at least 2 g. of phytosterols.

Although the most important thing is to focus on healthy eating habits, there are supplements in the market to help achieve the recommended daily dose. 

Cardiosmile, a Phytosterols supplement,  is a Chilean innovation that allows you to add phytosterols directly to food through a pure liquid solution. Cardiosmile’s formula is supported by the Chilean Society of Cardiology (SOCHICAR), and it´s free of calories, gluten, lactose, sodium and Genetically Modified Organisms, making it suitable for all types of diet.

Gonzalo Vega, creator of Cardiosmile, says:

“To put it in perspective, a Chilean eats about 0.2 grams of phytosterols per day in his normal diet and a Cardiosmile sachet has 2 grams, 10 times more than the normal diet.”

WHO SHOULD CONSUME THEM?

Though the main benefit of Phytosterols is to decrease the absorption of cholesterol, this does not mean that only those with high cholesterol should increase their consumption.

Everybody should increase their consumption of vegetables, legumes, nuts, etc., while decreasing the intake of products of animal origin. This simple food habit can have a profoundly beneficial effect on the overall health of people.

On the other hand, the supplementation of phytosterols is highly recommended for people with pathologies related to high cholesterol levels; everyone can benefit from reaching the recommended daily intake of this natural compound.

So if you had not heard about them before, surely now you will not forget them.

YOU MAY ALSO BE INTERESTED IN:

https://www.cardiosmile.com/cholesterol-phytosterols/

METABOLIC SYNDROME: A DISEASE ON THE RISE

METABOLIC SYNDROME: A DISEASE ON THE RISE

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the world. There are various factors that influence the increase in risk to suffer this disease, however, there are 5 main indicators used to detect it. The Metabolic Syndrome is a condition in which a person has at least 3 of these 5 indicators. Knowing these is the first step to prevent them.

WHAT IS METABOLIC SYNDROME?

According to the American Heart Association, Metabolic Syndrome is defined as “a group of risk factors that increase the chances of suffering from heart disease, Diabetes, stroke and other health problems.”

This syndrome is also known as “Insulin Resistance Syndrome” and ” X Syndrome “. According to an article published by the Chilean Catholic University’s Health Network, “It is estimated that currently 25% of the American population older than 20 years suffers from this syndrome.The importance of being aware of this lies mainly in its relationship to cardiovascular pathology, since it confers an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. “

HOW DO I KNOW IF I SUFFER FROM METABOLIC SYNDROME?

To diagnose the presence of this syndrome, the following 5 risk factors are analyzed:

  • Hypertension
  • Insulin resistance
  • High triglyceride blood levels
  • Low HDL cholesterol blood levels 
  • Excess abdominal fat

A person is diagnosed with the syndrome when he/she has 3 or more of these risk factors. Having this condition implies a higher cardiovascular risk than the presence of each of the factors separately.

WHAT OTHER RISKS DOES METABOLIC SYNDROME INVOLVE?

One of the risks that usually goes unnoticed in the presence of the Metabolic Syndrome, is the non-correlation between the results of a lipid profile (for example, the concentration of total cholesterol or LDL cholesterol in blood) and the risk of cardiovascular disease. That is why in the presence of this syndrome, a person may have normal cholesterol levels, but still has a high cardiovascular risk.

HOW CAN WE PREVENT METABOLIC SYNDROME?

This condition is directly related to lifestyle. Each factor can be approached individually, however, all are benefited by healthy habits: eat natural food, high in vegetables of all kinds, have a low consumption of carbohydrates, quit smoking and engage in regular physical activity.

A high consumption of vegetables has been shown to have a profound impact on 4 of the 5 factors. Why? Because of the presence of Phytosterols.

WHAT ARE PHYTOSTEROLS?

Phytosterols are natural compounds present in all vegetables. The main health benefit of the consumption of phytosterols is that these compounds block the absorption of cholesterol at intestinal level. Thus, they help control cholesterol levels in the body, helping to prevent cardiovascular diseases and other disorders generated by harmful cholesterol levels.

However, it has also been shown that Phytosterols act at a systemic level, lowering triglyceride levels. Phytosterols also contribute by raising the amount of HDL cholesterol, they can decrease insulin resistance and are an excellent ally in the fight against abdominal fat.

It is estimated that in a typical diet, approximately 250 mg of phytosterols are consumed daily. Those following a vegetarian diet probably get double that amount. However, the recommendation is for a daily intake of at least 2,000 mg. of phytosterols.

Although the most important thing is to focus on healthy eating habits, there are supplements in the market to help achieve the recommended daily dose. Cardiosmile, for example, is a Phytosterol supplement.

Cardiosmile is a Chilean innovation that allows you to add phytosterols directly to food through a pure liquid solution. Cardiosmile’s formula is supported by the Chilean Society of Cardiology (SOCHICAR), and it´s free of calories, gluten, lactose, sodium and Genetically Modified Organisms, making it suitable for all types of diet.

Now that you are acquainted with the Metabolic Syndrome and its indicators, it is in your power to prevent them.

EVERYTHING ABOUT DIETARY FIBER

EVERYTHING ABOUT DIETARY FIBER

We hear that we need more protein, more or less carbohydrates, more or less fat, or vitamin supplements. These last years’ concerns about diet revolve around these concepts. But what about Fiber? This nutrient is essential for the prevention of hypercholesterolemia, Type 2 Diabetes, obesity and high blood pressure, among others. Therefore, it deserves a central place in the discussion on a healthy diet.?

 

  WHAT IS FIBER?

It is the part of food, especially of vegetable origin, that consists of non-digestible polysaccharides and lignin, or polysaccharides other than starch and lignin. Its peculiarity is that it is not hydrolyzed by the enzymes of the human digestive tract.

This nondigestible nutrient reaches the large intestine where it softens the consistency of the stool and increases its weight. Therefore, it contributes to increasing the frequency of defecation. This can help prevent important disorders of the large intestine, such as constipation, diverticulitis and cancer.

In addition, food or dietary fiber has numerous health benefits. Among them we can highlight its cardiovascular protective effect, especially regarding soluble fiber. This is  supported by large clinical and epidemiological studies.

These studies show the beneficial effect of dietary fiber on hypercholesterolemia, Type 2 Diabetes, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and C-reactive protein as inflammation marker. According to these findings it is advisable to keep a diet rich in dietary fiber.

 

HOW MUCH FIBER SHOULD BE CONSUMED?

The daily recommended dose of dietary fiber is currently around 28 g/day for women and 36 g/day for men. These doses are based on the levels of fiber consumption that offer the greatest protection against cardiovascular disease as observed in clinical studies.

 

HOW CAN FIBER CONSUMPTION BE INCREASED?

The typical modern diet tends to be low in fiber as the consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes and whole grains is limited. According to the latest National Health Survey, only 15% of the Chilean population eat at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetables a day.

Therefore, as a primary preventive measure against cardiovascular disease, it is considered highly advisable to keep a diet rich in fiber. Increase your consumption of fruits, legumes and nuts. Substitute refined grains for whole grains and reduce daily consumption of refined flours, fried foods, pastries and sugary drinks.

Let’s go back to eating natural foods, let’s feed ourselves well and nourish our bodies with good quality food.

In the table below we can see various food’s dietary fiber content:

Name Total dietary fiber per 100 grams Dietary fiber per serving
Raw Chard 1,8 1,5
Chicory, Succory 0,8 0,6
Garlic 1,7 0,1
Artichoke 8,0 6,4
Celery 1,7 1,3
Eggplant 3,8 3,0
Beet 1,6 1,3
Broccoli 2,6 2,1
Raw onion 1,6 1,3
Mushrooms 1,3 1,0
Durvilaea Antarctica (Chilean seaweed) 6,9 5,5
Cauliflower 2,2 1,8
Endive 0,9 0,7
Asparagus 1,7 1,3
Spinach 3,3 2,7
Lettuce 1,8 1,4
Porphyra 8,8 7,0
Cucumber 1,0 0,8
Tomato 0,9 0,7
Green beans 2,6 2,1
Carrot 3,2 2,6
Blueberry 2,4 1,9
Apricot 1,9 1,5
Raspberry 6,2 5,0
Strawberry 2,6 2,1
Kiwi 3,4 2,7
Apple 2,4 1,9
Orange 2,1 1,7
Avocado 9,6 7,7
Pear 3,8 3,0
Pineapple 1,2 1,0
Banana 1,6 1,3

 

By Antonia Latorre, Nutritionist

@antolatorre

¿HOW HEALTHY ARE WE CHILEANS?

¿HOW HEALTHY ARE WE CHILEANS?

Recently the National Health Survey’s 2016-2017 results have been made public and the data is not auspicious. A sustained increase in obesity in the population, low fruit consumption and lack of knowledge of important indicators such as Cholesterol are just some indications that the Chilean population is far from reaching a healthy optimum.

Times are changing, and with them people’s lifestyle habits. The sustained increase in the supply of fast food and its low prices, together with lack of time due to the fast pace of life, is a global trend that includes Chile as well.

What are the consequences of this? The last Health Survey shows that 74.2% of the population is overweight. In 2010 this percentage was 66.8%, while in 2003 it reached 61%. That is, in only 14 years, obesity in the Chilean population has increased by 13.2%,  and an exponential and sustained rise is observed.

Table: Comparison of overweight, National Health Survey 2003, 2010,2017 

2003 2010 2017
Total Overweight Population  61% 66,8% 74,2%
Overweight 37,8% 39,4% 39,8%
Obesity 21,9% 25,1% 31,2%
Morbid obesity 1,3% 2,3% 3,2%


On the other hand, we can see that national cholesterol prevalence results fell from 38.5% in the 2010 National Health Survey to 27.8%. This is a significant decrease of 10.7%. However, that does not mean you do not have to worry about it.

The survey also indicates that a high percentage of the population has no knowledge of their blood cholesterol levels. Thus the apparent decrease of this percentage may not be such.

Therefore, it is important to start working on prevention and control. This way, effective actions can be planned to help the population to lead a healthier lifestyle.

Optimal cholesterol levels can be seen in the table below: 

Total cholesterol less than 200 mg/dl
LDL cholesterol less or equal to 160 mg/dl
HDL cholesterol more than 40 mg/dl (men)
more than 50 mg/dl  (women)

Another relevant point is the low consumption of fruits and vegetables by a majority of the population. Only 15% state they eat at least 5 portions every day, the WHO’s optimal intake recommendation. 

It can be seen that men have increased their consumption, but women have decreased it. The importance of eating the recommended portions of fruits and vegetables is paramount, since it is a protective factor for the cardiovascular system.

A healthy lifestyle is based on the principles of nutrition and physical activity:

  • Eat 5 servings of fruits and vegetables a day
  • Eat legumes at least once a week
  • Reduce the consumption of red meat
  • Eat grilled or cooked (not fried) fish at least once a week. 
  • Reduce the consumption of fried foods, refined flours and sugars
  • Increase the intake of water
  • Maintain a healthy lifestyle and avoid being sedentary
  • Reduce the intake of alcohol

Sources:

http://www.minsal.cl/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/ENS-2016-17_PRIMEROS-RESULTADOS.pdf

http://www.minsal.cl/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/2-Resultados-ENS_MINSAL_31_01_2018.pdf

 

By Antonia Latorre, Nutritionist

@antolatorre