How can we heal cardiovascular disease? Although years ago it was thought that those who had suffered a cardiovascular disease should rest to recover, over time, this belief was de-mystified.
A MYTH THAT DISAPPEARED WITH TIME
According to the Colombian cardiologist Juan Manuel Sarmiento, who was in Chile within the framework of the 2nd International Symposium of Exercise Science and Physical Activity, organized by the Universidad Mayor: “In the 70’s we began to see that physical activity is effective to recover from a heart attack. And it was proven that it also helps in other heart diseases.”
Exercise is a fundamental tool for patients who have suffered a heart attack, an open heart surgery, the implantation of a pacemaker or a heart transplant, says the doctor, who is a specialist in cardiovascular rehabilitation and coordinator of the Prevention Center Cardiovascular of the Shaio Clinic Foundation of Colombia.
it is always recommended to start doing physical activity, if possible, eight days after leaving the hospital, says Sarmiento.
“The type of exercise depends on each person. It should start with dynamic activities to move the body, such as a walking, cycling, elliptical or arm movements. Ten weeks later you can start to strengthen the muscles with machines or light weights “.
Sarmiento clarifies that it is important to start small, without forcing the body. At the beginning, exercise 10 or 15 minutes a day, twice a week, but over time the load must be progressively increased.
The specialist concludes: “The main benefits at cardiovascular level are that the heart is strengthened, the heart rate and blood pressure decrease. It improves the endothelium, which is the inner layer of the arteries, and helps maintain cholesterol at an adequate level “.
Now we just have to put these tips into practice.
By Andrea Manuschevich
Source: El Mercurio
Hypertension is a disease defined by blood pressure figures above 140/90 mmHg. According to the World Health Organization’s (WHO) warning, it’s the first cause of worldwide mortality.
WHAT CAN BE DONE TO LOWER YOUR BLOOD PRESSURE?
The first measure recommended by all medical societies is to lower the amount of salt -or what is the same, sodium- in meals. However, according to a study carried out by researchers at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Boston (USA), it’s possible that this limiting your sodium intake does not help much.
As explained by Lynn L. Moore, director of this research presented in the framework of the Scientific Sessions 2017 of the American Nutrition Society (ASN):
“In our study, we have seen no evidence that a low-sodium diet has any long-term beneficial effects on blood pressure. Thus, our results reinforce the growing evidence that the current recommendations on sodium intake could be wrong ».
IT IS NOT THE SODIUM
Sodium intake by healthy individuals should not exceed 2,300 milligrams daily. A recommendation that, according to the WHO and ‘translated’ into quantities of salt, would limit the daily amount of salt to 5 grams a day.
However, and despite this limitation, it’s worth asking: does salt have any real effect on blood pressure? Keep in mind that we take twice the amount of salt recommended every day. That is, 10 grams a day.
To answer this question, the authors followed the evolution of blood pressure figures for 16 years. 2,632 women and men, aged between 30 and 64 years of age, did not suffer from high blood pressure at the time of their participation in the study.
After 16 years of follow-up, the results showed that:
–Participants who took less than 2,500 milligrams of sodium a day ended up with blood pressure figures higher than those who consumed larger amounts.
In this context, it’s important to point out that people who took less than 2,500 milligrams per day of sodium started with blood pressure rates higher than the rest of the participants.
But what is really important is that the limitation of sodium intake did not seem to have any positive effect on the evolution of these figures.
However, the new evidence is not as ‘transgressive’ as one might suppose. Some studies had already shown a ‘J-shaped’ relationship between sodium intake and cardiovascular risk.
That is to say, people with greater risk of cardiovascular disease are not only those who abuse sodium, but also those with a low consumption of this salt component, as recommended by medical societies.
Thus, the lowest cardiovascular risk is to be found in people with an average consumption.
As Lynn Moore reports, “the new results support those achieved in all these studies in which the validity of low dietary sodium intake in the general population is questioned”.
Moreover, as the research director states “It is true that there is a subgroup of the salt-sensitive population that would benefit from a reduction in their sodium intake. But we need more studies to develop easier methods with which to monitor salt sensitivity. “
POTASSIUM, CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM
So, if the key is not found in sodium, what can be done to prevent high blood pressure? According to the study, the intake of potassium, calcium and magnesium should be increased. The results showed that participants with higher intakes of potassium, calcium and magnesium had the lowest blood pressure at the end of 16 years.
As Lynn Moore concludes: “Our findings call attention to the importance of high potassium intake on blood pressure. We hope our study helps to focus current dietary recommendations and increase the importance of the consumption of foods rich in potassium, calcium and magnesium, in order to maintain healthy blood pressure figures ».
20% of the children in our country are overweight and 10% are obese. To prevent the development of Diabetes, more investment in adequate measures is needed.
Far from being a merely ‘aesthetic’ problem, obesity is a very serious disease, associated with the development of life-threatening pathologies such as:
Obesity has doubled in just over three decades to reach 13%, 600 million people. This has been the case especially in children who have been dragging the consequences of this disease since childhood.
In fact, a new study conducted by researchers at King’s College London (United Kingdom) shows that:
– Children with obesity have a risk up to four times higher to develop Type 2 Diabetes.
As explained by Ali Abbasi, director of this research published in the Journal of the Endocrine Society, “given the rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity and overweight, the number of children and young adults diagnosed with Diabetes has grown significantly in the United Kingdom since the beginning of the 1990s. And in this context, and compared to their normal-weight counterparts, children with obesity have a four times greater risk of being diagnosed with Diabetes at the age of 25. “
2 . A GROWING EPIDEMIC
To carry out the study, the authors analyzed the medical records, especially the data referring to BMI and metabolic diseases, of 369,362 British children between 2 and 15 years of age.
The results showed that 654 of the children and adolescents participating in the study had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 1994 and 2013. An increase that is explained by the growth in the prevalence of obesity in the United Kingdom.
Diabetes is a huge burden on society because the disease is becoming more common.
Current estimates indicate that:
One in every 11 adults suffers from type 2 diabetes, which means an overall figure close to 415 million people.
“And given that both Diabetes and disease can be prevented from the first years of life, we hope that our results, together with those achieved in other investigations, will motivate the public and decision-makers to become involved and invest in efforts to prevent Diabetes”.
DIABETES TYPE 2, NOT TYPE 1
Finally, the results also showed that 1,138 children were diagnosed with type 1 Diabetes during the period 1994-2013. However, and contrary to what happened in the case of Type 2 Diabetes, the authors found no relationship between Type 1 Diabetes and obesity. An expected result given that Type 1 Diabetes is the result of an underlying autoimmune disease.
In short, excess weight much increases the risk that children end up developing Type 2 Diabetes. A very important aspect to take into account given that, as of today, up to 20% of Spanish children are overweight and 10% is obese.
Specialists praise the egg for being “a complete food” as it has high nutritional value and a relatively low economic cost. What are the benefits of eggs?
STUDY REVEALS THE BENEFITS OF EATING EGGS
Nowadays, the recommendation is to include eggs in your regular diet. As time passes and greater knowledge is gained, so have the benefits attributed to this food increased. The myths that called to look at it with suspicion until a few years ago have been knocked down.
This was made clear by the recent publication of the American study “Meta-analysis of egg consumption and risk of coronary, heart disease and stroke” led by main researcher Dominik Alexander from the EpidStat Institute of the University of Michigan. The results were published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition.
This study, along with discarding the relationship between egg intake and coronary artery disease, found that consuming one unit per day could reduce the chances of having a stroke (CVA) by up to 12%.
These results highlight the positive nutritional attributes of the egg, such as its antioxidant content that reduces oxidative stress and inflammation, as well as its protein contribution that, according to Alexander, is believed to be associated to a lower blood pressure,
Protein contribution is, precisely, the main characteristic of the egg, says Soledad Reyes, director of the School of Nutrition and Dietetics of the University of Chile. Egg proteins are the ones with the highest biological value and the best quality that can be eaten.
“Egg proteins are the gold standard to which other food proteins are compared and their quality is only comparable with proteins from breast milk ” she says.
This important protein is one of the reasons that argue in favour of including this food in the diet at any age, especially when there are high nutritional demands. Thus, for example, in stages such as childhood and adolescence, Reyes argues that egg protein ensures better growth and during pregnancy it contributes positively to fetal development.
She explains that “Adults begin to lose muscle mass from the age of 40. In older adults this condition is known as sarcopenia and it has been proven that egg consumption helps reduce this loss of lean mass”.
SATIETY AND VERSATILITY
The beneficial role of the protein contribution of the egg to health is complemented by the fact that, like all foods rich in protein, the feeling of satiety increases after eating. This is the reason why its consumption can help in weight control, says Veronica Halabí, Director of the Nutrition and Dietetics career at Universidad del Desarrollo, Concepción.
“Studies found that including eggs at breakfast can satiate and reduce daily calorie intake. Another study found that eating eggs at least 5 days a week, for eight weeks, helped overweight people who were on a hypocaloric diet to control their weight; compared to subjects that breakfasted on bread or pastries with a similar caloric value” she says.
Of course, the above works only as long as eggs are not eaten fried in oil or butter.
However, the above is not a problem as another quality that characterizes this natural product is its versatility, making it easy to prepare, eat and digest so it may advantageously be included in meals at any time of the day.
Halabí specifies that ideally, eggs should be eaten:
She highlights that it can be added to a person’s regular diet from childhood, once any allergies to it have been ruled out.
That the egg provides the best quality protein compared to other foods is far from being its only remarkable nutritional feature. Victoria Halabí, (who provides evidence in figures), highlights the egg’s low caloric intake, absence of carbohydrates and its important content of valuable nutritional and functional components.
She further adds that the oleic acid contained in eggs exerts a beneficial action on the blood vessels, which reduces the risk of suffering cardiovascular and liver diseases.
Likewise, the Omega 3 fatty acids in this product play an important role in improving heart health and mental functions, she adds.
“Vitamins D, B12, folate and selenium contained in eggs have been associated with the prevention of chronic disorders like heart diseases, hypertension, cognitive deterioration and congenital defects.”
On the other hand, Soledad Reyes adds that lutein, an antioxidant contained in eggs, prevents macular degeneration damage (an eye disease); and that it is also the main source of choline, a nutrient that favors brain development.
In addition, she states that “the lipid profile (related to cholesterol levels) that the egg has is one of the most balanced within the group of foods of animal origin,” specifying that “the studies that have been conducted in recent years have determined that eating an egg a day has no effect on blood cholesterol levels in healthy people. “
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death in Chile. Most of the clinical consequences occur in adulthood. To control these diseases there is something called the Lipid Profile. Here we tell you what it is.
THE MOST AFFECTED POPULATION
To put it in context, it’s important to point out that the elderly are the sector of the population most affected by cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) due to risk factors such as:
-Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle
The Ministry of Health, as a strategy to control the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular diseases, created the Cardiovascular Health Programme (PSCV) in 2002. This programme has more than 2 million people enrolled to date.
One of the tests used to monitor patients who enter the PSCV is the Lipid Profile, which measures:
-TOTAL CHOLESTEROL LEVEL
-LDL CHOLESTEROL (LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS)
-HDL CHOLESTEROL (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS)
-VLDL CHOLESTEROL (VERY LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS)
– CARDIOVASCULAR RISK INDEX.
WHAT IS THE MEDICAL EXAM LIKE?
First, this is a clinical laboratory examination performed and validated by a professional medical technologist, which ensures that the process meets a high quality standard in all its stages.
Therefore, for a correct result the quality of the sample is very important. The preparation of the patient must be delivered by the professional who orders the examination. Should you have any doubts related to the requirements of the sample-taking, you should approach the Clinical Laboratory staff, who is prepared to explain the procedures for each analysis.
In the case of the Lipid Profile, a blood sample is required.The patient must attend after having kept a strict 12-hour fast. So if you are an elderly person, you should ideally be accompanied by someone, and take with you the exam order and your identity card.
It is very important that all directions given for the sample-taking are followed to the dot because any mistakes made at this stage may result in the so called pre-analytical errors that can influence the final result of the test, leading to possible errors in the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of the disease.
A study compared the effects of obesity in men and women, the latter are more at risk of suffering from certain diseases.
According to a study led by the Hospital del Mar in Barcelona, Spain, abdominal obesity increases the risk of suffering an ischemic stroke (or cerebral infarction) especially in women, while a higher body mass index acts as a factor of protection in men.
According to the study, that involved 388 patients with stroke and 732 healthy volunteers, abdominal obesity may be a measure to predict the risk of ischemic stroke more efficiently than the body mass index, especially in women.
This study was published in the European Journal of Neurology.
The research was led by neurologists Ana Rodríguez and Jaume Roquer at Hospital del Mar Researchers from the Hospital del Mar Institute of Medical Research (IMIM), concluded that measures of abdominal obesity serve to predict the risk of suffering a cerebral infarction.
Ischemic cerebral infarction, or ischemic stroke, occurs when a part of the brain suddenly stops receiving blood due to the occlusion of one of its arteries.
According to the researchers, among the risk factors are environmental, genetic and systemic interactions, including obesity.
Roquer explained that women generally have a higher percentage of body fat but the accumulation of fat in the abdominal area is greater in men.
He proposes to measure abdominal obesity, instead of evaluating global body fat through the body mass index, to predict the risk of stroke.
“The reason is that the waist perimeter better reflects the amount of adiposity than the body mass index, especially in women” says neurologist Ana Rodríguez.
WHAT DO THE DATA SAY ABOUT OBESITY?
“The statistical data show that a higher body mass index prevents the risk of cerebral infarction in men. This agrees with the so-called ‘obesity paradox’, that relates obesity with a lower mortality and recurrence of stroke “according to Rodríguez.
Source: El Mercurio de Valparaíso